Nanotechnology can be defined as the study, design, creation, synthesis, manipulation and application of functional materials at the nanometer scale. In recent years nanotechnology has emerged tremendous potential in improving aquaculture to fulfill the increased demands for animal protein requirements around the globe. In the current review article, we have comprehensively summarized the available literature focusing on the applications of different kinds of nanoparticles in aquaculture and fisheries. To this end, we first highlighted how this technology is being used in the delivery of vaccines, in the purification of water from heavy toxic metals as well as coliforms and in the delivery of nutrients that play a significant role in scaling up growth and immunological parameters in fish. On the other hand, contrary to their usefulness, we also described the toxicity and adverse effects that nanotechnology-based materials and products exert not only on the environment but ultimately also on human health. Therefore, finally we discussed the importance and need for ecofriendly, non-toxic natural strategies to promote sustainable aquaculture. This included the discussion about natural bioactive compounds which are being used predominantly in aquaculture as growth enhancers and immunomodulators, herein with an example of curcumin. But unfortunately, their low bioavailability in aqueous solutions hinder their efficacy. This led us to introduce Pickering emulsions which are known to be safe and have high stability and are predominantly used as delivery systems for these compounds in an attempt to boost up their bioavailability.

Detailed information can be found in the original article: Shah, B.R., Mraz, J., 2020. Advances in nanotechnology for sustainable aquaculture and fisheries. Reviews in Aquaculture 12: 925–942.

Schematic representation of nanotechnology applications in fishery.

Mechanism of nanoparticles-based adsorbents and hydrogel films for removal of F-, NO3- and coliforms (E. coli) from contaminated water.

Facile representation of emulsion preparation as delivery system.